Miriam Louisa Rothschild (1908-2005)
The Rothschild Archive has very few private papers of Miriam Rothschild.
Dame Miriam Louisa Rothschild, born on 5 August 1908, was the eldest child of Nathaniel Charles Rothschild and Rozsika von Wertheimstein.
Miriam was a zoologist, entomologist and parasitologist who was a world authority on fleas, butterflies, pyrazines and chemical communication. Lacking a formal education, she was inspired by the work of her father and uncle. Miriam studied zoology at Chelsea Polytechnic. Her early work was as a marine biologist, specifically looking at larval trematodes. Following bomb damage to her research material while living in Plymouth during the Second World War and a later move inland, Miriam turned her attention to fleas. She investigated the jumping mechanism of the plague carrying flea Xenospylla cheopis, a species first described by her father, Charles Rothschild, in 1903. Miriam co-authored a collection of volumes detailing the taxonomy and morphology of her father’s collection of fleas.
In addition to her academic work, Miriam championed nature conservation and was actively involved in a broad range of civic, social and political causes, including providing scientific evidence to the Wolfenden Committee whose report assisted in decriminalising homosexuality. Her expertise in nature conservancy led to her advising HRH Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales when he was creating an experimental wildflower meadow at his Highgrove Estate. She was editor of Novitates Zoologica between 1938 and 1941; a journal of zoology established by her uncle, Walter, 2nd Lord Rothschild.
During the Second World War, Miriam was with the Foreign Office between 1940 and 1942 and then joined a group of distinguished scientists working at Bletchley Park on the Enigma decryption project working as a code breaker. She received a Defence Medal in 1945 from the British Government for her work. She aided refugee Jewish scientists during and after the war and she also worked with several organisations dedicated to helping Jewish children escape from Germany and Austria, often housing some of these refugees in her own home at Ashton Wold, Oundle, Northamptonshire, which was used by the Red Cross as a convalescent hospital for military personnel. Miriam married Captain George Lane, MC in 1943. The marriage was dissolved in 1957. They had six children: two sons and four daughters.
Dame Miriam published over three hundred scientific papers during her lifetime. Having been educated at home from a young age, she was awarded several honorary degrees throughout her life including Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) by Oxford University in 1968, Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) by Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden, in 1983, and Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) by Cambridge University in 1999. Dame Miriam was also decorated with international awards in recognition of her work and she was invested as a Commander, Order of the British Empire in 1982. In 1985 she was invested as a Fellow, Royal Society, and became, with her brother Victor, the only brother and sister to have both been made Fellows of the Royal Society. She was invested as a Dame Commander, Order of the British Empire (DBE) in 2000. Dame Miriam died 20 January 2005, aged 96.
Miriam Rothschild, photographs, c.1995
000/538, 1 item
Photograph of Miriam Rothschild. Miriam is shown in a headscarf, under a tree with a shetland sheepdog, in a field of bluebells, on the Ashton estate.
Miriam Rothschild, obituaries, 2005
000/2604, 1 folder
Folder of originals and photocopies of international, national and local newspaper, magazine and newsletter obituaries and articles concerning Dame Miriam Rothschild and her life and work. Published in 2005 upon Dame Miriam's death, aged 96. Includes pieces from The Guardian, Tring Residents' Association, The Jewish Chronicle, The Times, the Economist, The Evening Standard, The Daily Mail, Berkhamsted & Tring Gazette, The Independent, Dienstag, The New York Times, and print-outs of pages from websites, such as The Wildlife Trusts.
Miriam Rothschild, Memorial Service, 2005
000/1536, 1 file, 1 CD
Papers concerning the Memorial Service for Dame Miriam Rothschild, held 7 April 2005: Order of Service; invitation; list of acceptances; CD audio recording of the service.
Miriam Rothschild, secondary sources, 1986
000/2006, 1 item
Homes and Gardens magazine, October 1986: 'Two Lady Gardeners: Rosemary Brown and Dr Miriam Rothschild' concerning the garden at Ashton Wold.
Miriam Rothschild, secondary sources, 1990
000/787, 1 item
Pamphlet Miriam Rothschild, in the series Women in Science, Shell Educational Supplement, 1990.
Miriam Rothschild, secondary sources, 2003
000/2373, 1 item
Article on Miriam Rothschild's Wildflower Garden at Ashton Wold, published in Country Life, 13 November 2003.
Miriam Rothschild, secondary sources, 2006
000/2447, 1 item
Printed monograph Dame Miriam Louisa Rothschild CBE (1908-2005) by Helmut F van Endem and Sir John Gurdon (The Royal Society, 2006).
Miriam Rothschild, secondary sources, 2008
000/1884, 1 item
Article on Miriam Rothschild's Wildflower Seeds, published in Country Life, 17 January 2008.
Miriam Rothschild, secondary sources, 2013
000/2172, 1 item
Exhibition catalogue for 'Scientists' at The Royal Society' held summer 2013. The cover features the bronze bust of Dame Miriam Rothschild by Marcus Cornish, which was loaned by The Rothschild Archive London for the exhibition.
Publications and scientific papers
The Rothschild Archive holds printed copies of many of the scientific publications and printed works of Miriam Rothschild. In addition to the items listed below, further publications will be found in the Reading Room Library.
Miriam Rothschild, publications, Catalogue of the Rothschild Collection of Fleas, 1953-1971
000/1401/3, 22 volumes
Copies of the six volume work An Illustrated Catalogue of the Rothschild Collection of Fleas; one full set plus sundry duplicate copies. Note: a complete six volume set is kept in the Reading Room.
- Volume I: An Illustrated Catalogue of the Rothschild Collection of Fleas: Tungidae and Pulicidae, G.H.E. Hopkins and Miriam Rothschild, The Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1953 (6 copies)
- Volume II: An Illustrated Catalogue of the Rothschild Collection of Fleas: Vermipsyllidae and Xiphiopsylladae, G.H.E. Hopkins and Miriam Rothschild, The Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1956 (2 copies)
- Volume III: An Illustrated Catalogue of the Rothschild Collection of Fleas: Histricopsyllidae, G.H.E. Hopkins and Miriam Rothschild, The Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1962 (2 copies)
- Volume IV: An Illustrated Catalogue of the Rothschild Collection of Fleas: Histricopsyllidae Concluded, G.H.E. Hopkins and Miriam Rothschild, The Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1966 (4 copies)
- Volume V: An Illustrated Catalogue of the Rothschild Collection of Fleas: Leptopsyllidae, G.H.E. Hopkins and Miriam Rothschild, The Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1971 (5 copies)
- Volume VI: An Illustrated Catalogue of the Rothschild Collection of Fleas: Pygiopsyllidae, D.K. Mardon, G.H.E. Hopkins and Miriam Rothschild, The Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1971 (1 copy)
Miriam Rothschild, publications, A revised glossary of terms used in the Taxonomy and Morphology of Fleas, 1971
000/1401/4, 5 volumes
Copies of A revised glossary of terms used in the Taxonomy and Morphology of Fleas, by Miriam Rothschild and Robert Traub. Reprinted from An Illustrated Catalogue of the Rothschild Collection of Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the British Museum (Natural History), Volume V, pp 8-85, Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London, 1971. Note: a copy is kept in the Reading Room.
Miriam Rothschild, publications, The Rothschild Collection of Fleas, The Ceratophyllidae, 1983
000/1401/5, 5 volumes
Copies of The Rothschild Collection of Fleas, The Ceratophyllidae, by Robert Traub, Miriam Rothschild and John Haddow . Published privately by Miriam Rothschild and Robert Traub, Academic Press Inc. (London), 1983. Note: a copy is kept in the Reading Room.
Miriam Rothschild, publications, offprints and articles, 1960-2004
000/1401/1 and 000/1401/2, 6 volumes; 6 boxes
000/1401/1: A set of articles and offprints of articles authored and co-authored by Miriam Rothschild, consisting mainly of scientific papers and with some biographical notices and obituaries. The collection was originally transferred to the Archive loose in several boxes. They were sorted and bound at the request of the Archive into six slip-cased volumes in 2011: Volume 1: 1960-1964; Volume 2: 1965-1969; Volume 3: 1970-1979, (part 1); Volume 4: 1970-1979, (part 1); Volume 5: 1980-1989; Volume 6: 1990-2001.
000/1401/2 consists of six boxes of duplicate articles and other publications from which the set in 000/1400/1 was compiled. Note that 000/1402/2 contains additional items not bound into the reference set in 000/1401/1.
Miriam Rothschild, publications, offprints and articles, 1968-1979
000/1327, 1 file
Collection of articles by Miriam Rothschild: mainly reprints, 1968-1979. Also includes a bibliography of her scientific publications, 1932-1979.
Miriam Rothschild, publications, 'John Foster', 1986
000/394, 1 file
John Foster by Miriam Rothschild, the address given on the occasion of the first John Foster Memorial Lecture at University College London, 4 November 1986.
Miriam Rothschild, publications, 'Isaiah Berlin' and 'Sir John Foster and The Jews', 1998
000/678, 2 items
Two privately printed pamphlets by Miriam Rothschild: Isaiah Berlin and Sir John Foster and The Jews.
Miriam Rothschild, publications, 'Tadeus Reichstein', 1999
000/786, 1 item
Tadeus Reichstein, offprint of memoir by Miriam Rothschild published in Biog. Mems Fell R. Soc. Lond. 45 (1999).
Miriam Rothschild, publications, 'The Schizophrenia Research Fund', n.d.
000/1496, 1 item
Pamphlet The Schizophrenia Research Fund by Miriam Rothschild. Miriam founded the Schizophrenia Research Fund in 1962, an independent registered charity formed “to advance the better understanding, prevention, treatment and cure of all forms of mental illness and in particular of the illness known as Schizophrenia”. In March 2006, following her death, the name of the Fund was changed in her memory to the Miriam Rothschild Schizophrenia Research Fund.
Miriam Rothschild, research notes, 'Rothschild Gardens', c.1990
000/529, 6 boxes
Research papers for the book Rothschild Gardens, by Miriam Rothschild, Kate Garton and Lionel de Rothschild, arranged in folders by name of Rothschild property: Château Boulogne-Billancourt, Boulogne-sur-Seine and Château d'Armainvilliers, Seine-et-Marne; Villa Victoria, Grasse; Château de Pregny, Geneva: Gunnersbury Park; Château de Ferrières, Seine-et-Marne, Tring Park; Bockenheimer Landstrasse, Frankfurt; Aston Clinton; Exbury; Villa Ile-de-France, Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat; Mentmore Towers; Hohe Warte, Vienna; Halton; Ascott; Ramat Hanadiv; Waddesdon Manor.
The files contain very few original documents, mainly photocopies and copy photographs. Many are copies of documents in the collections of The Rothschild Archive. 000/529/27 is a large rolled coloured map of the Château de Pregny, 'Inventaire des arbres', (Inventory of trees), with different species marked, dated 20 July 1989.
000/529/26 is a collection of 46 reproduction photographs of various Rothschild houses and gardens, from the collections of the National Monuments Record (numbers in brackets are National Monuments Record reference numbers):
- 000/529/26/1 Ascott: garden (1507)
- 000/529/26/2 Ascott: garden (1508)
- 000/529/26/3 Ascott: garden (1509)
- 000/529/26/4 Ascott: garden (1512)
- 000/529/26/5 Ascott: garden (1514)
- 000/529/26/6 Ascott: garden (10348-3)
- 000/529/26/7 Ascott: garden (10348-4)
- 000/529/26/8 Ascott: garden (10348-7)
- 000/529/26/9 Ascott: garden (10348-10)
- 000/529/26/10 Ascott: garden (10348-12A)
- 000/529/26/11 Ascott: garden (10348-20)
- 000/529/26/12 Ascott: gardener Jennings in his garden (10348-24)
- 000/529/26/13 Ascott: garden (10348-25)
- 000/529/26/14 Ascott: garden (12323-8)
- 000/529/26/15 Ascott: garden (12324-3)
- 000/529/26/16 Ascott: garden (12324-4)
- 000/529/26/17 Ascott: garden (12324-9)
- 000/529/26/18 Ascott: garden (9075)
- 000/529/26/19 Ascott: garden (no ref)
- 000/529/26/20 Gunnersbury Park: garden (825)
- 000/529/26/21 Gunnersbury Park: garden (828)
- 000/529/26/22 Gunnersbury Park: Orangery from across lake (830)
- 000/529/26/23 Gunnersbury Park: terrace (CC56/24)
- 000/529/26/24 Gunnersbury Park: the alcove (CC56/25)
- 000/529/26/25 Gunnersbury Park: garden (CC56/30)
- 000/529/26/26 Gunnersbury Park: the Japanese Garden (CC88/84)
- 000/529/26/27 Gunnersbury Park: the Japanese Garden (CC88/85)
- 000/529/26/28 Gunnersbury Park: the Temple Garden (CC88/86)
- 000/529/26/29 Gunnersbury Park: view of Temple through trees (L3666-3674)
- 000/529/26/30Gunnersbury Park: rose arches on lawn (L3666-3674)
- 000/529/26/31 Gunnersbury Park: terrace (L3666-3674)
- 000/529/26/32 Gunnersbury Park: terrace (L3666-3674)
- 000/529/26/33 Gunnersbury Park: house viewed through arch (L3666-3674)
- 000/529/26/34 Halton: gardens, 1892 (BL 11772)
- 000/529/26/35 Halton: gardens, 1892 (BL 11778)
- 000/529/26/36 Halton: gardens, 1892 (BL 11779)
- 000/529/26/37 Mentmore Towers: gardens (BB77/11585)
- 000/529/26/38 Tring Park: ladies on terrace, 1892 (Lady Emma Rothschild on right) (11785-1)
- 000/529/26/39 Tring Park: ladies on terrace, 1892 (Lady Emma Rothschild on right) (11785-2)
- 000/529/26/40 Tring Park: view of mansion, 1892 (11789-12)
- 000/529/26/41 Tring Park: gardens, 1892 (11790-14)
- 000/529/26/42 Tring Park: gardens, 1892 (11792-20)
- 000/529/26/43 Tring Park: gardens (11798-26)
- 000/529/26/44 Tring Park: topiary (L3063-3066)
- 000/529/26/45 Tring Park: man clipping bush in front of tennis court (L3063-3066)
- 000/529/26/46 Waddesdon Manor: gardens with mansion behind (L3345-3350-3349)