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Major Correspondents

By 1821, the Rothschilds had established their banking houses in Frankfurt, London, Paris, Vienna and Naples. It was crucial to their expansion plans for the family to have a representative in each of the places where they were doing business, reporting on markets and prospects and acting on their behalf. However, family commitments often meant that their preferred choice of sons and nephews heading up branches in other countries was not always possible. The alternative, of which the Rothschilds made great use, was to send agents, carefully chosen from among their friends and intimates. Many of the agents were known to the Rothschilds through trusted connections with other banking families.

This global network enabled the Rothschilds to profit from the most up-to-date business and political information, and social news. The agents operated in a semi-independent role. They acted on behalf of the Rothschilds in securing local business deals, but were also able to use their positions as representatives of one of the most prestigious banking partnerships to amass considerable personal wealth and social position.

The activities of the Correspondence Department of the London house lay at the heart of the bank's operations and the records handled by it constitute a large proportion of the Archive.

Adam, A. & Co., 1837-1845

XI/38/0, 1 box

Bankers and agents to Lloyd's, based in Boulogne. Many of the letters are routine business, requesting NMR to accept letters of credit given to their clients, acknowledging receipts from NMR for payments of the same, and informing them that they have honoured NMR's clients' letters of credit. Some of these letters include specimen signatures. A. Adam & Co. also appear to have been involved in shipping and forwarding. For example, many letters from the latter part of 1837 to 1839 deal with the arrangements necessary for salvaging bottles of quicksilver from a wrecked ship that was travelling from Cadiz to NMR in London. The company also received money and personal effects of the Rothschilds in France, arranging for a permit for Sir Anthony's carriage to leave Boulogne, for the forwarding of a harness for Baron James, and organising the acceptance and forwarding of Cullen with five trunks of 50,000 sovereigns, for instance.

French

9 records available

Agie, J. & Insinger, A., 1823-1828

XI/38/6, 2 boxes

A company based in Antwerp, formerly called David Parish, Agie & Co. until 1823 when Parish restricted himself to his company in Vienna. The letters show that the firm dealt with routine business, discounting bills of exchange, remitting and handling drafts, providing brokerage for public stock and foreign exchange dealing and supplying stock quotations.

German, English

6 records available

Ansoategui, Domingo Perez, 1832-1851

XI/38/3; XI/38/4; XI/38/5, 5 boxes

An agent for the Rothschilds responsible for the Sevillian dépôt where the Government sent its deliveries of quicksilver. Ansoategui was based in Cadiz until 1837 when he moved to Seville. The letters relate to these deliveries, and to the arrangement of all other deliveries of quicksilver, to the New World for example, and to payments for them. Ansoategui also arranged deliveries of other goods, such as cigars, oil, olives, oranges, and sent with the quicksilver, wood, wool and cork for freight. The letters also contain some details of local politics and weather conditions, as well as the difficulties of transportation.

Spanish

23 records available

Auerbach, L., 1896-1935

XI/39/0-9; XI/39/10-25 (000/870), 37 boxes

A successor to the firm A. Gansl of Amsterdam. The correspondence consists of routine schedules of drafts.

German

40 records available

Avigdor l'aine et fils, 1835-1874

XI/38/9-11, 6 boxes

A correspondent bank in Nice which also acted as insurance bankers for Rothschild clients, and placed orders for quicksilver and appear to have acted as a commission agent, ordering white sugar from Havana and selling it on NMR's behalf.

French

40 records available

Bansa & Bandeuf, Ulrich, then Bandeuf, J., 1822-1828

XI/38/40, 1 box

A company based in Genoa accepting bills of exchange, trading in goods from the colonies, supplying information on exchange prices. The letters include references to legislation in Northern Italy re grain (money) weight and exchanges. For a continuation of this series, see Pescio below.

English

7 records available

Baur J. H. & G. F., 1815-1817;1819-1820;1826-1829;1835-1843

XI/38/42, 2 boxes

Based in Altona, this firm provided regular quotations of exchanges and handled bills on behalf of NMR.

English, German

16 records available

Beadle, J., 1836-1846

XI/38/43, 1 box

Letters from a Hull firm, accepting and discharging bills. Routine material with little reflecting outside issues.

English

11 records available

Becker & Fuld, 1853-1871

XI/38/44-51, 15 boxes

This extensive correspondence from Amsterdam is entirely addressed to the house and concerns government stocks, government loan dividends, handling government coupons, sending Stock Exchange reports. There are comments in detail on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange and the purchase of Russian securities, for example.

For the continuation of business in Amsterdam, see Davidson & Goldschmidt.

German

21 records available

Behrens, L. & Söhn, 1839-1920

XI/61/0-49, 91 boxes

L. Behrens & Sohne handled Rothschild business in Hamburg. This is a series of fairly routine business correspondence recording the buying and selling of a variety of goods for NMR and trading on their account on the Hamburg exchange. Of particular note is the correspondence for 1848, in which there are frequent warnings about the volatility of the political scene and Behrens advise against excessive speculation on the stock exchange, which is very quiet while people await political developments. In 1843, Behrens ask to receive from NMR their exchange rate via telegraph. Behrens believe that they are the only banking house in Hamburg to use the telegraph.

German

110 records available

Behrens, S. L., 1844-1881

XI/60/0-3, 8 boxes

Letters from S. L. Behrens in Manchester deal mainly with the return of bills left by NMR for acceptance and instructions for the payments of the proceeds. Bills of lading and shipments of cotton are also discussed. A circular in 1881 notes the separation of S. L. Behrens from L. Behrens & Sohne: the firms had been distinct up to this date, but had participated in each others' undertakings.

38 records available

Belmont, August & Co. General and Private Business Correspondence, 1837-1880; 1921-1934

XI/62/0-30; XI/62/31-44 (000/871), 73 boxes

Belmont correspondence can be found in the series of two departments: The American Department (series II) and the Correspondence Department (series XI).

This series contains early and later Belmont correspondence. Letters covering the middle period (1881-1920) will be found in II/51/0-37. Go to Belmont papers in the American Department »

The early letters date from Belmont's first days in New York when he was handling business on behalf of NMR with the agents in Havana, his original destination. For at least the first year of the correspondence, Belmont wrote in German, but the bulk of the correspondence is in English. The private letters show Belmont dealing with the purchase of stock on behalf of NMR, shipping specie, handling bills and trading in tobacco, lead and quicksilver. Belmont provides a commentary on the markets and assesses political developments. There is a good deal of information in the series on all aspects of the American railroads including the organisation of railroad companies, new extensions to lines and the issue of railway bonds to cover construction costs. General correspondence within the series is made up of routine advices of payments on letters of credit and acknowledgements of NMR's remittances. The entire series provides a clear picture of the operation of an agency.

107 records available

Beyfus Brothers, 1807-1820

XI/38/52, 2 boxes

A series of family correspondence from Frankfurt, Amsterdam and Manchester. Some of the earliest letters in the series, 1807-1816, are addressed to N. M. Rothschild from his brother-in-law Siegmund Leopold Beyfus (married to Babette) and his future brother-in-law, Meyer Beyfus, soon to be married to Julie. A letter in Judendeutsch from Amsterdam in 1807 bemoans the fact that even ships flying the flags of little states are being arrested at the harbour, and English merchandise is badly wanted. The correspondence to the house from the same date is in German, often with lengthy postscripts in Judendeutsch. The acceptance and discharging of drafts and bills (firsts and seconds) is reflected and there are details of many central (i.e. Hamburg and Amsterdam) accepting houses dealing with drafts.

Judendeutsch, German

14 records available

Bleichröder, S. General Business Correspondence, 1831-1935

XI/63/0-24; XI/63/25-39 (000/871), 71 boxes

The Bleichröder correspondence is divided into two distinct series: private business and general business. The private business correspondence dates from 1850 to 1893, and the general from 1831 onwards. The private letters are from Gerson Bleichröder, the Rothschild agent in Berlin. All are written in German with Hebrew used occasionally for names and key terms. The correspondence becomes more substantial from 1865 only. Virtually all the letters were written in Berlin and were addressed personally to Baron James in Paris until his death (1868), after which time they are addressed to the "Baron" in Paris or to the bank generally. Some letters are addressed to Lionel or NMR in London, usually those dealing with specific business matters. A number of letters dated 1879 derive ultimately from the Frankfurt house, having been sent to Bleichröder in copy. They are addressed to Count Levaschoff, the president of a "Russian Mutual Association" in St Petersburg.

Bleichröder wrote virtually on a daily basis, but there are significant gaps in the series for several years, especially for the months November to March when very often there is not one letter. From about 1878 the letters become standardised in content and format, diminishing significantly in quantity from 1883 until 1888 when there are only a handful for the whole year. The correspondence for 1893 includes letters of thanks from Bleichroder's family for condolences expressed on his death.

There is a good deal of business information in the correspondence, especially loan issues, but also news from the Berlin Stock Exchange and political intelligence. Bleichroder provides a detailed interpretation of Prussian/German politics with a particular emphasis on foreign affairs. In the 1860s he charts developments leading to the wars with Denmark and Austria. In 1870 and 1871 reports on the Franco-Prussian war predominate. After the foundation of the Second Empire, Bleichroder reports extensively on Russian politics and on Russo-German relations. His information was derived from rumour, contacts with the Prussian court and - as he was at pains to stress - from personal meetings with Chancellor Bismarck, whose banker he was. In the lead-up to the outbreak of war with France, he complains to James that he has not been briefed by the Chancellor for several days and is thus able to provide only information to which the general public had access. There are occasional references to Jewish affairs. For example in 1875, he notes the formal emancipation of the Jews of Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Romania.

German

112 records available

Bleichröder, S. Private Business Correspondence, 1850-1893

XI/64/0-1, 2 boxes

The Bleichröder correspondence is divided into two distinct series: private business and general business. The private business correspondence dates from 1850 to 1893, and the general from 1831 onwards. The private letters are from Gerson Bleichröder, the Rothschild agent in Berlin. All are written in German with Hebrew used occasionally for names and key terms. The correspondence becomes more substantial from 1865 only. Virtually all the letters were written in Berlin and were addressed personally to Baron James in Paris until his death (1868), after which time they are addressed to the "Baron" in Paris or to the bank generally. Some letters are addressed to Lionel or NMR in London, usually those dealing with specific business matters. A number of letters dated 1879 derive ultimately from the Frankfurt house, having been sent to Bleichröder in copy. They are addressed to Count Levaschoff, the president of a "Russian Mutual Association" in St Petersburg.

Bleichröder wrote virtually on a daily basis, but there are significant gaps in the series for several years, especially for the months November to March when very often there is not one letter. From about 1878 the letters become standardised in content and format, diminishing significantly in quantity from 1883 until 1888 when there are only a handful for the whole year. The correspondence for 1893 includes letters of thanks from Bleichröder's family for condolences expressed on his death.

There is a good deal of business information in the correspondence, especially loan issues, but also news from the Berlin Stock Exchange and political intelligence. Bleichroder provides a detailed interpretation of Prussian/German politics with a particular emphasis on foreign affairs. In the 1860s he charts developments leading to the wars with Denmark and Austria. In 1870 and 1871 reports on the Franco-Prussian war predominate. After the foundation of the Second Empire, Bleichroder reports extensively on Russian politics and on Russo-German relations. His information was derived from rumour, contacts with the Prussian court and - as he was at pains to stress - from personal meetings with Chancellor Bismarck, whose banker he was. In the lead-up to the outbreak of war with France, he complains to James that he has not been briefed by the Chancellor for several days and is thus able to provide only information to which the general public had access. There are occasional references to Jewish affairs. For example in 1875, he notes the formal emancipation of the Jews of Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Romania.

German

44 records available

Borland, J., 1825-1841

XI/38/53-54, 3 boxes

These concise business letters from Iver Borland in Trieste deal with the bill business and the handling of specie, as well as providing market reports and some analysis of the effects of political and climatic events on trading and the course of the exchange in Trieste on most European currencies.

17 records available

Braunsberg & Co., 1809-1830

XI/38/55-58, 8 boxes

Several boxes of letters in English, with some in German, from Braunsberg & Co. based in Amsterdam. Letters consist of general correspondence relating to routine draft and remittance business. The firm also forwarded letters from NMR to European cities, including to Rothschilds in Frankfurt and to St. Petersburg, and they supplied the London house with news of rates of exchange and details of the extent of current interest shown in the exchange business in various cities, especially Hamburg. In addition they received consignments of bonds and sold them for NMR. The letters show that the company carried out some small personal commissions for the London house.

English, German

22 records available

C. de B., 1859-1878

XI/94/0, 1 box

These letters are addressed to Lionel from a Paris-based political informant to NMR who signed himself "C. de B." He has been identified as Alexandre Guyard de Saint-Cheron. See Letters from Paris written by C. de B., a political informant, to the Head of the London House of Rothschild, 1870-1875, Robert Henrey (London, 1942).

Further letters may also be found within the series XI/109.

French

20 records available

Cahen, J., 1846-1848

XI/38/62, 1 box

Writing from Amsterdam, Cahen provides market reports and details about handling bills

German

3 records available

Cahen, M., 1839-1849

XI/38/63, 2 boxes

Letters from M. Cahen in Antwerp contain market reports and accounts of dealing in coupons and government stock.

German

11 records available

Cerasi, Antonio, 1881-1907

XI/68/0-3, 9 boxes

The letters in this series concern transactions on NMR's account with this bank in Rome, and included extracts from the accounts.

French

27 records available

Cohen, J. I. Jnr., & Brothers, 1834-1838

XI/38/64, 1 box

J. I. Cohen Jnr. & Brothers of Baltimore first write on 29 August 1834, having been recommended to NMR by a brother, Mendes I. Cohen. They soon report that they have had an interview with John Forsyth of the Department of State, regarding the transfer of the agency of Banker to the United States Government in Europe from Barings to NMR. The early letters also report on the development of the United States in general and Maryland in particular, reporting often about presidential pronouncements regarding the Bank of the United States. The general routine business of the agency is of course featured.

English

5 records available

Collings, Edward & Co., 1823-1826

XI/38/65, 1 box

A firm based in Amsterdam who sent NMR letters every three or four days with details of the market for government bonds (Russian, English, Prussian, and Spanish for example), as well as on the Stock Exchange. They included with their correspondence current prices and quotations of exchange rates.

English

5 records available

Collings & Maingy, 1820-1825

XI/38/66, 1 box

Letters from a firm based in Rotterdam that dealt in government securities and accepted and discharged bills

English

6 records available

Couderc & Brants, 1814-1825

XI/38/67-68, 3 boxes

Three boxes of business correspondence from a firm based in Amsterdam. In 1814 letters are in German; thereafter they are mostly in English. They include reports re stocks, exchange rates, dealing in stocks and bonds, specie, bullion reports. There are detailed market quotations, factors affecting stock dealing, regular quotations of Public Fonds.

English, German

13 records available

Cullen, W., 1820-1828;1830-1837

XI/38/69-71, 5 boxes

William Cullen and his brothers Hunt, Jeffery and Thomas were involved in receiving and forwarding specie to NMR and the partner houses. From 1820 until his death in 1837 William acted as Nathan's agent, based in Calais. These letters, some of which were written by Jeffery, inform NMR of barrels, bars, bags, cases and casks of gold and silver as well as bonds and obligations, received and sent by William Cullen.

English, French

18 records available

Davidson, B., 1847-1849

XI/38/81B, 1 box

Benjamin Davidson was the son of Meyer Davidson. In 1847 he set out to St Petersburg with several boxes of bullion and the early letters detail the gruelling journey through Europe in the harsh months of February and March. The letters are mainly addressed to the firm, but in interspersed private correspondence he details the hardships of the journey and records his impressions of the city of St. Petersburg. It is apparent, though never explicitly stated, that Davidson was sent there to assess the potential for establishing a Rothschild house under his direction, replacing the services of Baron Stieglitz and F. C. Gasser, the existing agents, whose activities on behalf of the joint houses are chronicled in detail. The plans for the house were not realised.

In the following year, Davidson set out on a journey that was to take him, via the West Indies, Panama, Peru, Chile and Mexico to San Francisco, where he arrived at the end of August. He writes from Lima with details of the journey, promising that he will "not repeat what every one must write of the Life on Board Ship, nor complain of the badness of the accommodation of which people form much too favorable an opinion upon visiting the Steamers at Southampton, particularly when they see the fine repast which is served before starting, and for a repetition of which the Passengers vainly looked forward to when once out at sea." Many of Davidson's letters tell of the miseries of travel. In Valparaíso, he receives consignments of quicksilver and writes back with details of the market in this commodity. He writes with great enthusiasm about San Francisco and its potential for business and discusses in some detail the prevailing economic and social conditions. Much of the routine correspondence to the house details bills and remittances. From June 1850, Davidson is joined by May (see below, Davidson & May), possibly as a result of some dissatisfaction felt by NMR about Davidson's handling of the business, particularly his desire to buy property which shows an alarming tendency to burn down. Davidson however always feels the burden of the responsibilities placed upon him, and seems to welcome a colleague.

English

3 records available

Davidson & May, 1850-1859

XI/38/82-83, 4 boxes

For Benjamin Davidson, see above. Early letters in this series are from Davidson only. However, NMR appears to have felt that Davidson’s performance as their San Francisco agent was not satisfactory, and from part way through 1850 letters begin to be signed by Davidson and May. May writes in German while Davidson continues to write in English. Subjects covered in this series of letters include the gold and quicksilver trade with comments on these markets and on prospecting for gold; at times Davidson used gold dust for remittances, and when there was a superabundance of gold dust the market for drafts was adversely affected. Davidson also traded in specie and bullion for NMR, and there are some references to him shipping consignments to London for NMR. There are also reports on the local markets for general merchandise and the availability of numerous commodities, details re emigration to San Francisco, the price of labour, the government's need for loans, and the weather (Davidson remarks that 'the market fluctuates with the barometer'). Davidson invested in a good deal of land on NMR's account, renting out houses he bought or had built himself (a business over which he fell out with NMR), and there are details of the construction materials, including the problems of insuring wooden houses, and the cost of land in San Francisco. Davidson's letters provide reports of local events, such as fires in the city which prevent him doing business, and they give a good impression of life (the cost of living, local crime rate, etc.) in California at the time. Included are invoices for consignments of gold dust and other merchandise (coffee, sugar, spices, cigars, etc.) and notes of drafts. [Note: A pocket account book of D M Davidson, brother of Benjamin Davidson covering the period 1847-1851, including expenditure on cigars, bets, china, furniture, hunting, travelling, and notes on events, including the movements of Benjamin Davidson, the election of Baron Lionel de Rothschild (1808-1878) to Parliament in 1847, and the abdication of Louis-Philippe d'Orléans, France's last king after the uprising of 1848 will be found 000/1922].

English

11 records available

Davidson & May and Davidson & Berri, 1860-1864

XI/38/84, 2 boxes

For Benjamin Davidson, see above. Early letters are from Benjamin Davidson. May joined him in San Francisco in the course of 1850, but he left the agency in April 1863 when Berri took over from him. Letters relate particularly to the purchase and shipping of bullion, orders for quicksilver, and also accepting bills and discharging drafts. As well as reports on the bullion business, there are also details of the discovery of new mines, the possibility of establishing a refinery, shipwrecks, and politics. Also included are invoices for bullion shipped to the Bank of England for the account of NMR.

English, French

5 records available

Davidson & Berri, later Davidson, B., & Co., 1865-1877

XI/38/85-87, 6 boxes

This series contains the final letters from Davidson & Berri of San Francisco, which became B. Davidson & Co. from 1 September 1866, signatories being A. Gansl and J. Cullen (see Gansl & Cullen below).Mining and shipping quicksilver, shipping specie, accepting and discharging bills and drafts are all reflected and there are details of the New York Exchange, shipping and stock market quotations.

English

13 records available

Davidson, L, 1843-1853

XI/38/76-77, 4 boxes

Lionel Davidson, another son of Meyer Davidson, was Rothschilds' agent in Mexico where his duties involved shipping specie to NMR and receiving and requesting shipments of quicksilver to be sold in the interior of Mexico. Here he used agencies in Zacatecas (with the agent Roxburgh), Guadalajara and Ganajuato among other places. In his letters Davidson advises NMR on how much quicksilver the local market can stand and therefore how much would be sent, and advises on possible business deals, informing them of new trading possibilities (in China, for example), and giving details of local legislation regarding exports and imports and foreign traders. He includes reports on problems of transportation due to high winds, illness, and so on, and also gives accounts of political events and social upheavals. Davidson also negotiated with the President on such matters, for example, as duties on specie. In these series are to be found both general and private letters, and also a very few personal notes, in which Davidson requests domestic items to be sent to him, or informs Rothschilds that he is looking around for some typical souvenir of the place to send home.

English

11 records available

Davidson, M., 1814-1816

XI/38/81A, 1 box

Meyer Davidson was Nathan Mayer's brother-in-law, having married Jessy Barent Cohen. Benjamin, Lionel and Nathaniel Davidson were his sons. From 1814, from his base in Amsterdam, Davidson handled the purchase and shipment of coin for Wellington's troops, which is the main subject matter of this small collection of letters. As a family member, Davidson was able to act as a mediator between Nathan and his brothers, who were regularly upset by Nathan's harsh words about their business capabilities. This correspondence contains some examples of his attempts at diplomacy. An English translation of this small series is available.

Judendeutsch

3 records available

Davidson, N., later Graham, Phillips & Co, 1854-1876

XI/38/78-80, 9 boxes

Nathaniel Davidson joined NMR's Mexican agent and his own brother, Lionel Davidson, in 1852 and took over from him on his death in 1853. The series opens with the signing of a Treaty between the Mexican Government and the United States. Some letters are headed according to the business they deal with. Among other affairs reflected are financial settlements with the Mexican clergy, Government loans, the San Raphael ironworks (owned by Rothschilds for a time until sold in 1879 by Graham, Phillips and Company), the American and Mexican indemnity and gold contracts. They request English iron, materials for local railroads and consignments of quicksilver to be sold on commission and inform NMR of bales of tobacco and cochineal sent over. There are details of shipwrecks, Mexico's internal politics and social upheavals, political relations with America, mining and prospecting in Mexico, and new laws passed in Mexico which could affect NMR's business there. Memoranda of drafts upon NMR, and accounts relating to the quicksilver and iron businesses are included with the letters. From 1872 Nathaniel left the agency in the hands first of Graham, Watson & Co. and then Graham, Phillips & Co.

English, French

27 records available

Davidson, N. & Goldschmidt, D. N., 1875

XI/38/123, 2 boxes

See Goldschmidt, D.L.

English

1 record available

Drake, C. & Co. [Drake Brothers & Co.], 1836-1846

XI/38/89, 1 box

Charles Drake & Co. were a Havana-based company dealing in sugar and coffee as well as jerked beef, bullion and specie (e.g., dollars and doubloons). The company accepted and discharged bills, dealt with protested bills and kept NMR informed of current prices of sugar and coffee, as well as of the local demand for bills on London and the premium on these bills, and of exchange rates. The letters advise NMR of bills sent for shipments of sugar and specie; they also relate to specie remittances from the Intendente of Cuba. NMR accepted Drake's drafts for two thirds of the invoice amount of shipments consigned to NMR themselves. The letters include reports relating to local politics, Spanish decrees concerning the island and details of local sugar and coffee crops. From the end of 1839 the company became 'Drake Brothers & Co'. From 1847, a former confidential clerk at the Paris House, Carl Scharfenberg, took over the Havana agency. His letters, in German, can be found within the series XI/109.

English

11 records available

de Drusina, William & Co., 1838-1851

XI/38/88, 2 boxes

Drusina's main business involved the sale of quicksilver for NMR in Mexico until July 1843 when Lionel Davidson was sent out. The company was in partnership with Ludolfo Petersen, and, from 1841, Henry Huth as well. To sell quicksilver, they used their own agencies (with many of which NMR was in joint account) based in interior and coastal towns, including San Luis Potosi, Zacatecas, Guanajuato and Tampico (Lameyer & Co.). They also had an agent in London. They were concerned not only to dispose of shipments of quicksilver, but also to maintain prices so as not to injure NMR's London sales.

At this time the letters relate to the receipt of shipments of quicksilver, reports on sales in the interior at those places mentioned above, as well as the state of the markets there and in Mexico [City], informing NMR of the quantity of quicksilver stock, the price at which quicksilver from other sources (various areas in Mexico, for example) is sold and the difficulties of selling it when in abundance. The letters also concern shipments of specie sent to NMR. Drusina also deals with imports of cotton

Drusina wrote "We shall certainly be most happy to see your views carried into effect for rendering our correspondence more active and important to mutual advantage by the presence here of Mr Davidson" [28 July 1843]. From then until 1851 Davidson and Drusina both acted as agents, writing separately to NMR. Davidson and Drusina began working together, but from 1844 Davidson took over the quicksilver business while Drusina's involvement was in shipping cochineal, specie and bullion and dealing in bills discounted and purchased in Mexico. From 1844 the letters deal with the cochineal trade.

In the late 1840s, a C. G. Kauffmann signed many of the letters. In July 1848, Petersen died, Huth remained in Europe, and Kauffmann 'continued' to have power of attorney and to sign in Drusina's name.

Also in Drusina's letters are details of political and social events in the United States and Mexico, including revolutions and disturbances by the Federalists in Mexico and the annexation of Texas, and there are reports on problems of shipping, a sunken ship in the Tamesi river, and, where relevant, weather conditions.

English

14 records available

Eckhard J. C. Jnr., & Co., 1838-1848

XI/38/92, 2 boxes

A firm based in Manchester with which NMR established business connections in 1838, charging them a banking commission of 1/2%. They acted as an accepting house accepting and discounting bills of exchange.

English

11 records available

Ellissen, & Co., 1831-1843

XI/38/93, 2 boxes

Letters from Manchester, Bradford, Frankfurt, concerning dealing in bills.

English, German

13 records available

Ewart, Myers & Co., 1833-1847

XI/38/95-97, 6 boxes

A Liverpool-based bank, this company handled imports and sales of cotton, accepted NMR's bills and issued their own, forwarded letters from NMR to the Americas and kept NMR informed of the state of the local cotton market. Among the letters are price lists of produce from the West Indies and South America (cotton, wood, hides, ginger, indigo etc.) and some accounts of sales.

English

15 records available

Ezechiels, M. & Sons, 1815-1822;1825-1864

XI/38/98-104, 12 boxes

A correspondent bank in Rotterdam, whose services to NMR included accepting and discharging bills of exchange, bills at sight, drafts and the shipping of specie. Details are given about postal delays, problems in winter from ice on the steamers and general market prices.

German

50 records available

Ezpeleta, I. & Co., and Ezpeleta, F. X. & Co., 1834-1848

XI/38/94, 1 box

Inigo Ezpeleta & Co. were a firm based in Bordeaux who had the monopoly of quicksilver production at the Almaden mines from 1830 when the government sold the mines by auction. This contract was rescinded and a new one signed by Lionel de Rothschild in 1835. The Rothschilds allowed Ezpeleta to participate in the contract, and from then on he seems to have acted in partnership with them. The letters deal largely with orders and deliveries of quicksilver, but they show, too, that Ezpeleta dealt in other commodities such as indigo and wine, as well as accepting and discharging bills. In 1835 many of them relate to the new contract. In addition many letters relate to Danube Canal shares. There are fewer letters in the 1840s, particularly between 1845-1849. From 1839, I. Ezpeleta becomes F. X. Ezpeleta. The company also acted as a forwarding agent.

French, Spanish

16 records available

du Fay, Colin & Co., 1826-1848

XI/38/90-91, 5 boxes

The correspondence consists of confirmation of drafts sent to Rothschilds to negotiate on the Manchester firm's behalf.

English

23 records available

Fesser, Picard & Co., 1838-1848

XI/38/106, 1 box

A Havana-based firm with a sister-company called Fesser Albers & Co. based in Matanzas on whose behalf Fesser Picard & Co. wrote, offering their services to NMR, including investing funds for NMR's account, shipping sugar (for example, to Stieglitz in St. Petersburg), receiving money from the Conde de Villanueva, the Intendenteof Havana for NMR's account and dealing with Treasury bills. They also kept NMR informed of political occurrences in the country, as well as sundry events in the area, such as the capture of Spanish vessels by ships for Haiti (1842), the French consul, shipping problems, details re planters and the supplying of coffee for the country.

English, Spanish

11 records available

Finnie Bros. & Co., 1834-1847

XI/38/107, 1 box

A company based in Rio de Janeiro acting as an accepting house and discharging bills of exchange. They kept NMR informed of business in imports and rates of exchange, and also on the commodity markets, quoting prices of sugar, specie, coffee, hides, advising of the demand for and availability of them, and supplying details of relevant crops. They also gave NMR the price of freights to Europe and government stock. Included in the letters are accounts of local politics and social unrest.

English

14 records available

Finnie, Medlicott & Co., 1828;1833-1847

XI/38/108, 2 boxes

A company based in Lisbon which accepted and discounted bills of exchange, shipped specie to NMR, and supplied them with detailed accounts of politics on the Iberian Peninsula, including details of the Cortes, the failure to pay the army, troop movements and daily detailed comments on the administration of Portugal. They also supplied current rates of exchange. In 1834 they received, by Procuration, the right to receive the dividend from NMR and to invest this stock.

English

16 records available

Flusheim, J., 1841-1846

XI/38/109, 2 boxes

Routine business with a Manchester firm, connected with a Frankfurt house, in which the drafts on NMR are listed. Flusheim was in partnership with David Hesse with whom in March 1845 he registered a copyright design for 'Imperial Patent Shirt Collars' and 'improved elastic shirt fronts.....easy and comfortable without being subject to any of the annoyances which are caused by the old styles'. In the following year they were taken to court by a London shirt-maker but the designs were found to be 'essentially different'.

English

6 records available

Fourcade & Co., 1843-1853

XI/38/110, 1 box

A Bordeaux-based company offering a variety of services to NMR, including acceptance and discharge of bills, the sending on of coupons and the transporting of bullion. It was involved in business with the India Company, trading in indigo, for example, and many of the letters request drafts on the Indian and Bengali Governments. From 1846 the company seems to have acted as a forwarding agent, sending on bullion from the NewWorld.

French

11 records available

Fraenkel, S. A., 1865-1879

XI/38/111, 2 boxes

Based in Warsaw, Fraenkel's business with NMR revolved around handling drafts and bills of exchange.

German

15 records available

Franckel, Moses Salomon & Co., 1828-1835

XI/38/112, 2 boxes

The earliest letter in the series is an introductory one in English from Franckel in Hamburg, expressing delight that a connection has been made between the two houses. Franckel is keen to set up a conto meta on which to send remittances. Thereafter all the letters are in German. A printed circular of 21 October 1834 announces the death of Moses Salomon Franckel. The correspondence for 1834 and 1835 is meagre.

German

8 records available

Fries & Co., 1821-1826

XI/38/113, 1 box

The earliest letter from this Viennese house is a general circular of 31 December 1820 announcing a new association with David Parish following sixty years of operation, the last nine years in partnership with P. F. Feronce de Rothencreuz. The letters are quite short and deal mainly with the routine business of remittances and acceptances, letters of credit and comments on the funds. Occasional extracts from accounts are enclosed and the exchange rates are given regularly. Some comment is made about political events and the effects on the stocks, such as in a letter dated 6 December 1821, "Stocks are low and will probably remain so until news is heard of the ministerial debates at Laibach."

English

6 records available

Gansl, Albert & Cullen, Jeffrey, 1878-1880

XI/38/114, 1 box

After the liquidation of Benjamin Davidson's firm, Gansl and Cullen succeeded as NMR's agents in San Francisco. Jeffrey Cullen's father and uncles had worked for Nathan Rothschild; and he himself worked for Rothschilds from the age of 15. He was sent to Australia to manage the Montefiore estates there, and subsequently, in 1855, was sent to San Francisco. The letters deal largely with routine business, providing details of drafts and remittances as well as real property and the state of the quicksilver market. In 1880 the agency was liquidated.

English

3 records available

Gansl, A., 1884-1895

XI/75/0-6, 12 boxes

This Amsterdam firm is the successor to A. S. Valentin, and the predecessor of L. Auerbach. The letters give reports on the money markets and the Exchange, and there are reports of purchases on account of NMR. The routine business correspondence deals with receipts of remittances to NMR's credit and schedules of bills taken in discount.

English, German

12 records available

Gasser, F. C., 1818-1860

XI/38/115-118, 12 boxes

Gasser provided information on the St Petersburg Exchange as well as advising Rothschilds on the sales of their sugar in Russia in particular. On his retirement in 1860, Gasser returned from St. Petersburg to Berlin.

German

43 records available

de Gaviria, M., 1838-1846

XI/38/119, 1 box

Manuel de Gaviria was Queen Maria Cristina's intendant in Madrid and in charge of the royal purse. He was offered a part in the new quicksilver contract that was drawn up between Rothschilds and the Spanish Government in 1838. The letters deal with the shipping and sale of quicksilver for which he received a percentage, the acceptance and discharge of bills and issues surrounding the national debt.

Spanish

9 records available

Goldschmidt, D. L. & Davidson, N., 1871-1874; 1875

XI/38/120-123, 7 boxes

David L Goldschmidt appears to have been a clerk in the Frankfurt house. His arrival in Amsterdam on 24 April 1874 signifies the end of Rothschilds' connection with Becker & Fuld. Early letters to the London house deal with the handling of the Russian Loan and the Lombardo-Venetian and Central Italian Railway Loan of 1871. A prospectus and application form in Dutch appear in the May correspondence. The content of the letters is often indicated in a heading, such as "Amerikanische Anleihe" in 1874. The majority of the letters are to the London house, with just a small amount of private correspondence. It is virtually all in German.

In February 1875, David died of a fever, and his father Leopold and brother Jacob took over the running of the house. From 7 April 1875, Nathaniel Davidson starts to write. The first letters from him deal with the transfer of the agency to him, and for some time after the transfer on the 13 April, there is a small amount of correspondence from Jacob Goldschmidt. There is a larger proportion of private letters from Davidson than from Goldschmidt. From 6 November, the letters are signed on his behalf by Louis Davidson, his brother. Davidson too developed a fever and on 16 November Louis requests a power of attorney "like that sent to J. L. Goldschmidt in February." Louis' letters run to the end of the year, and there is no explanation for the cessation of the correspondence. In a letter in November, Louis congratulates Baron Lionel on the Suez business, which is causing a sensation in Amsterdam.

German, English

7 records available

Gontard, Alexander & Son, 1833;1837-1846

XI/38/124, 1 box

Gontard corresponded with NMR on bills and routine transactions from Frankfurt.

German

11 records available

de Goyri, F., 1837-1853

XI/38/125, 2 boxes

Francisco de Goyri y Beazcoechea was NMR's agent in Havana, acting as an acceptance house, collecting and sending off specie and bullion, liaising with the governor of Cuba for obtaining money to pay off loans advanced by NMR, sending across letters and invoices to NMR to be forwarded by them to other correspondent banks such as Heine and drawing on NMR for shipments of boxes of sugar, taking orders for sugar and coffee and seeing to their despatch. De Goyri's letters discuss the sugar and coffee markets, relate to sales of lottery tickets and payments by the Treasury, and supply NMR with reports on the financial and political scene on the island, including details of slave trading in Cuba, and so on. De Goyri often acts in co-operation with Tolmé, the British Consul in Havana who was acting for NMR in a similar way and whose business Goyri appears to have been sent to inspect. After de Goyri arrived in Havana, Tolmé made over to him much of the property that he held for NMR. From 1848 letters are in Spanish, and deal summarily with the discharge and acceptance of bills.

English, Spanish

17 records available

Green, J. C. , 1835-1836

XI/38/125A, 1 file

J.C. Green worked at New Court before departing for Canada. He wrote to NMR on three ocassions, praising Canada and suggesting business opportunities.

English

2 records available

Grohe & Sander, 1838-1849

XI/38/166, 1 box

See Lehr & Grohe:

The earliest letters in this series, from 1838, are from the firm Lehr & Grohe The firm, based in Rotterdam, arranged shipping and transportation, and provided lists of exchange rates. Many of the Rothschild family's private commissions are recorded in the correspondence.

German

12 records available

Guebhard & Co., 1822-1823;1825-1826

XI/38/126, 1 box

A small amount of routine business letters from George Guebhard & Co. at the Swiss Consulate, Leghorn constitutes this series. The routine correspondence embraces accepting and discharging bills and there are regular market quotations.

English

4 records available

von Halle & Son, 1815-1818

XI/38/127, 1 box

This series contains details about the rates of exchange and other routine business observations from a firm based in Hamburg

German

4 records available

Hambro, C. I. & Son, 1827-1840; 1824

XI/38/128, 3 boxes

A correspondent bank in Copenhagen. The letters deal with personal business as well as routine bill transactions. There are also letters from Wiesbaden addressed in warm personal terms, discussing personal and routine business. Some letters were originally sent to Frankfurt and then forwarded to London.

German

15 records available

Hamond, Charles Frederick, 1850-1859

XI/38/129, 2 boxes

Better known in Newcastle as the father of the Newcastle Council, C. F. Hamond is credited with creating the Spanish coke, coal and lead trade, importing silver and exporting coal. In these letters, he discusses the sale of lead to NMR and reports on the shipping of lead, silver, soft lead and coke as well as contracting ships for NMR, getting offers for shipments and arranging cash discounts on delivery. The letters list the names of ships used, trading between Newcastle and Liverpool, and the series includes transcripts of letters from J. Walker, Parker & Co., Liverpool. The sundry correspondence series contain correspondence with Hamond, particularly regarding the provision of coal for the Madrid Zaragoza Alicante railway.

English

10 records available

Hanau, J. N., 1843-1848

XI/38/130, 2 boxes

Hanau was based in New Orleans from where most of his letters were sent apart from the occasional one or two from places such as Memphis or Louisville the latter a refuge from the yellow fever that struck New Orleans in December 1843. Most are addressed to NMR but a good proportion are addressed to NMR and de Rothschild Frères jointly and some are to August Belmont, with whom Hanau was on the friendliest terms. A letter dated 2 November 1847 from Ludwig Hanau in Savannah informs that J. N. Hanau is on his way to New Orleans after a trip to Europe and reports on the markets in tobacco and cotton in the various places in which the writer stayed on his journey. It appears that Ludwig was also closely connected with Belmont. In 1848, Hanau handles letters between NMR and Lionel Davidson, the steady traffic of which has been impeded by the war. Hanau reports on the tobacco and cotton trades and advises NMR on purchases for the European market. The letters give detailed reports on prices of these and other commodities and included in the series are regular printed market reports. Letters also deal with various state bonds and bills.

The termination of the relationship with Hanau may be attributable to Alphonse de Rothschild, who wrote back from his American tour, "Hanau, of whom everyone, even strangers, has only the worst to report, is in the highest degree ruinous for us, and this has to be prevented in the future." (14 January 1849)

English, German, French

6 records available

Harris, Richard & Sons, 1826-1828

XI/38/131, 1 box

The series consists of regular detailed reports from the firm in London on the grain market. The letters and printed market reports of other traders appear among the letters that have been endorsed by clerks with the words "corn letters". There are also some printed circulars giving news of Commons motions on the duties on foreign grain.

English

3 records available

Heckscher & Co., 1814-1819

XI/38/132, 2 boxes

Heckscher & Co. of Hamburg acted for the Rothschild in Hamburg, overseeing the transfer of moneys to other banks in the city for dealing on the Stock Exchange. The letters also give details about handling gold, and regular reports on rates of exchange are included along with routine business such as handling drafts and bills. There are comments on political issues, e.g. peace with America and references to contacts with the firm of S. Heine. Some letters from Heckscher have been filed with the series XI/109.

German, Judendeutsch

6 records available

Heckscher, Coster & Co., 1837-1841

XI/38/133, 1 box

The letters from this New York firm deal with bill business and arranging cargoes to Europe.

English

5 records available

Heine, Salomon, 1819-1866

XI/38/134-44, 21 boxes

Heine's correspondence from Hamburg is of a fairly routine nature, handling remittances, and maintaining an account for NMR. The firm's business connections with Heckscher of New York are noted.

German

51 records available

Henkelom, Frans von & Zoon, 1817-1821

XI/38/145, 1 box

This series consists of routine correspondence from Amsterdam relating to remittances. There are some comments too on the Exchange.

English, Dutch

5 records available

Hertz, Levin, 1819-1823

XI/38/146, 1 box

Writing from Hamburg, Hertz conducted a routine business with NMR.

German, Judendeutsch

5 records available

Hesse, Isaac, 1814-1819

XI/38/147, 1 box

A Hamburg firm, accepting, discharging and crediting bills and providing regular market reports. The firm supplied NMR with regular market (Stock Exchange) prices, including quotations on a number of exchanges.

English

6 records available

Hodgson & Ryley, 1845-1847

XI/38/148, 1 box

A company based in Liverpool trading in Egyptian, Brazilian and American cotton. The letters give details on the state of the market and imports of cotton into the UK. They supply NMR with details of daily sales and the quantities of bales of cotton sold. There are also details of shipping problems, from the USA for example.

English

3 records available

Huth, Frederick & Gruning & Co., 1838-1860;1867-1872

XI/38/149-50, 3 boxes

The firm of Frederick Huth was originally based in Germany but came to London because of the blockades imposed on Hamburg and Frankfurt by Napoleon in 1806 and 1812. It was a prominent merchant bank, and because it was a leading firm in the Latin-American trade, it had branches in Lima and Valparaíso and was involved in shipping quicksilver via Southampton. These letters are from the Lima branch, and deal with the handling and shipping of quicksilver. There are details of sailings, delays, and so on. Also included among the letters are accounts of sales.

English

29 records available

Jardine Matheson & Co., 1838-1844

XI/38/151, 1 box

A firm dealing in textiles including chintzes, long cloths, long ells, cotton yarn, worsters, silk, broadcloth etc., and iron, Turkey opium, quicksilver, tin plates, cochineal and tea from its bases in Canton, Macao and Hong Kong. They also acted as an acceptance house, and handled bills on the Intendente of the Philippine Islands. Their agent in Manila was Messrs E. de Otadui & Co., from whom they passed on news to NMR about the payment of monthly revenues due to the Queen of Spain from the Philippines. The dominant political event at the time, the attempt by the Chinese authorities to end the import of opium, is reported in detailed circulars.

English

7 records available

Jenisch, M. J., 1815-1841

XI/38/152-154, 6 boxes

A Hamburg firm, handling bills of exchange on behalf of NMR, and deals with various other business forwarded to them, initially by Cullen. There is very little correspondence surviving from 1840 and 1841.

German

27 records available

de Jongh, Benjamin Isaac & Son, 1814-1828

XI/38/155-157, 4 boxes

Writing from Amsterdam, de Jongh handled drafts, treasury bills, bills of exchange, and remittances. He also dealt with British Government Treasury Bills, (for example with J. C. Herries and the Lords Commissioners in 1815) and included comments on exchange rates, especially on the Amsterdam and Paris Stock Exchanges.

German

15 records available

de Jongh, W. J., 1820-1827

XI/38/158, 2 boxes

Letters from Amsterdam, mostly in English, with a few in German. The letters reflect the business of sending NMR gold and specie. The company also traded in government bonds, stocks and bills of exchange. They supplied NMR with daily reports on government stock, rates of exchange, public funds and shares.

English

8 records available

Joseph, J. L. & S., 1833-1837

XI/38/159, 2 boxes

NMR's agent in the USA until 1837 when the company went into liquidation and August Belmont took on the role. They were based in New York, working in conjunction with R. & J. Phillips, handling bills of exchange, shipping and receiving specie and gold bars, informing NMR of the possibility of providing the US government with loans, supplying details of the local money markets (including some quotations of the exchange on London and Paris) and shipping quicksilver from Carthagena. The letters include comments on shipping and insurance for shipping, and handling quicksilver. There are comments on some local events and politics.

English

5 records available

Kap Herr & Co., 1859-1867

XI/38/160, 2 boxes

The first letter from this St Petersburg firm reports that the firm of Stieglitz & Co. is to be liquidated from 1 January 1870. The correspondence is fairly routine, reporting on the Exchange and the market in various bonds. There is some discussion about the business implications of the outbreak of war in 1866. In the event, business was curtailed and the firm was liquidated in 1867. The final letters are from Kap Herr in Dresden. The papers record the handling of drafts, reports on paper money offered, funds and government loan stock, and transactions in St. Petersburg, including exchange movements.

English

9 records available

Kaskel, Michael, 1836-1849

XI/38/161, 1 box

Routine business from Dresden: handling bills and remittances to accounts, drafts and an account for NMR.

German

14 records available

Lambert, S., 1844-1914

XI/77/0-19, 45 boxes

Two series of correspondence from the Lambert family agency survive in the Archive: this from Antwerp, their first agency, and the series below from the Brussels branch which Samuel Lambert took over from Lazare Richtenberger, his father-in-law on the death of the latter in 1853.

The correspondence is basically commercial in nature, reporting on the exchanges and the markets in general.

French

71 records available

Lambert, S., 1853-1935

XI/78/0-25; XI/78/26-40 (000/873), 65 boxes

The business developed in Brussels by Samuel Lambert and continued by his son Léon from 1875 is the origin of Banque Bruxelles Lambert. In the early days of this correspondence, there are many reports on the businesses that James de Rothschild in particular wanted the firm to pursue, especially railways, but the basis of the correspondence is the frequent exchange and market reports. The correspondence notes the many visits to Brussels of members of the Rothschild family, most often James, and comments on social and political events affecting the markets.

In 1882, Lucie, daughter of James's son Gustave de Rothschild, married Léon Lambert, thus cementing the ties between the two families.

French

92 records available

Lämel, Leopold, 1849-1859

XI/38/162, 2 boxes

Operating in Prague, Lamel’s business centred on the handling of bills and drafts, the transfer of remittances and the handling of protests. Many UK firms are mentioned and there are comments on handling difficulties.

German

11 records available

Landauer, Gustav & Co., 1844-1849

XI/38/163, 1 box

Gustav Landauer was based in Trieste, from where many of his letters were forwarded by Morpurgo & Parente. In 1847 and 1849 he appears to have travelled to other European cities, writing from Venice, Genoa, Turin, Odessa, Constantinople and Milan. He dealt in produce, particularly from South America; but Pernambuco, Bahia and Havana are among locations mentioned. Commodities included coffee, white, yellow and muscovado sugar, wheat and tobacco. Details of quality are given and some lists of prices included, for example, sugar prices from Turkey, Hamburg, Prussia, Holland and Belgium and wheat prices from Odessa. There is also information on the abundance of gold, Stock Exchange movements and the extent of demand for foreign money.

German, English, French

6 records available

Lanfear, Ambrose & Co., 1841-1855

XI/38/164, 1 box

This firm, mentioned frequently in the correspondence of J. N. Hanau (q.v.), bought and shipped tobacco and cotton on account of NMR from its base in New Orleans. Lanfear comments on the market situation, with particular reference to the weather and the nature of the crops, and gives general financial reports enclosing printed commercial intelligence. Some of the letters are copies of those he had written to August Belmont.

English

15 records available

Langsdorf, P., 1817-1822

XI/38/165, 3 boxes

Baron Langsdorf was a representative of Hesse-Cassel at the Court of St James. Rothschilds seem to have provided administrative assistance to the Baron, forwarding and holding mail for example, and this series consists of a great deal of diplomatic business.

English, German, French

7 records available

Lehr & Grohe, 1838-1849

XI/38/166, 1 box

See Grohe & Sander:

The earliest letters in this series, from 1838, are from the firm Lehr & Grohe The firm, based in Rotterdam, arranged shipping and transportation, and provided lists of exchange rates. Many of the Rothschild family's private commissions are recorded in the correspondence.

German

12 records available

Leuzinger & Co., 1830-1840

XI/38/167, 3 boxes

A company based in Rio de Janeiro which offered NMR various services: accepting bills, purchasing commodities such as leather and copper as well as coins, bullion and diamonds for NMR's account, to be sent for sale in Europe. They also provided NMR with detailed information on the money, bullion and commodity markets, the political situation in Brazil, local harvests, especially of coffee and sugar, and possible openings in the provision of services to the Government, including the issuing of loans. Leuzinger & Co. negotiated with the Minister of Finance on NMR's behalf to secure business with the Government.

French, English

11 records available

Leveux, Jacques, 1815-1819

XI/38/168, 2 boxes

Writing from Calais, Leveux recommends the suitability of the place as a base from which NMR can ship specie to the rest of the Continent. The letters are initially written in French but by late 1815 they are mostly in English. Leveux remarks on the commission he is paid, the houses for whom the shipments are intended, his meetings with Cullen (q.v.) and parcels sent from Nathan to his brother (saddles and bridles, for example). On 15 December 1815 he reports on "a great quantity of English troops consisting in cavalry and infantry, they are daily shipped for the other side." The names of the vessels used are frequently mentioned and occasional lists are supplied of payments made to ships' captains. Letters and parcels are regularly shipped from Paris to NMR in London via Leveux who undertakes to transmit some consignments in the particular care of a member of his house. The letters contain comments on shipping problems, detailed lists of bullion shipped, its volume and value, detailed accounts of shipping expenses, information on tonnage dues, harbour duties and customs duty on bullion.

French, English

5 records available

Leveux, Jacques & Co., 1837-1847

XI/38/169, 1 box

A forwarding agent based in Calais whose letters inform NMR of parcels of bonds, bullion, coupons, dividends and specie, mostly sent on to Dover for NMR from the Paris house, but sometimes in the other direction. Leveux also shipped personal packages between the cousins, including music for Louise, sweets for the Baroness, porcelain, asparagus, wine and shoes. Also included are Leveux' invoices for shipping, duties and courier costs from Paris to Calais.

French, English

11 records available

Lonergan Bros., 1824;1827;1829;1832-1847

XI/38/171, 2 boxes

This firm operated in Cadiz, handling bills of exchange and drafts, managing an NMR account and providing market reports. There are recommendations of various agents and comments on shipping problems and the political situation including disturbances around Barcelona on 12 October 1838.

English

19 records available

Mannion, R. B., 1867-1873

XI/38/172, 2 boxes

A firm based in New Orleans, whose services to NMR included administering NMR’s stock dividends, shipping tobacco, handling bills of exchange, buying coupons as agents and handling cotton shipments. The letters include details of transfers to the Paris Rothschild account and comments on the quality of tobacco, US canal shares, City of New Orleans coupons, the shipping of cotton to Liverpool and Le Havre and, in 1840, on Germany and the tobacco market.

English

7 records available

Marsh, John, 1823-1830

XI/38/173-174, 4 boxes

John Marsh wrote from Dover where he acted as a forwarding agent. Some parcels were forwarded from Cullen (q.v.) to NMR through John Marsh. These four boxes of letters give details and comments on imports and exports of wool, including German wool, reports of foreign messages to NMR, including Russian dispatches and reports on all activities through Calais and Boulogne. These include the times of arrival of messengers, details of messengers carrying dispatches for the Foreign Office and express deliveries to other City houses, and the movement of silver and gold through the port.

8 records available

Mendelssohn & Son, 1865-1872

XI/38/175, 1 box

A Berlin firm handling NMR remittances, providing regular account reports and transferring remittances to NMR. There are comments on remittances for Russian railways and details of parties paid on NMR’s behalf.

German

8 records available

Meyer, E. M. & Co., 1868-1886

XI/38/176-177, 4 boxes

This firm was based in St. Petersburg and handled remittances for NMR as well as an NMR account for purchases, including coupons.

German

19 records available

Meyer & Schönfeld, 1838-1845

XI/38/178, 1 box

In December 1838, G. S. Meyer from the Bradford based firm dealing mainly in worsted stuffs, called at Rothschilds', handing in a letter of credit for £5,000 per three months by Michaelson & Benedick (q.v.) of Stockholm, thus opening an account at New Court on which Meyer & Schönfeld could draw. They were given letters of reference and permitted to mention the connection with Rothschilds in their circulars. The account was designed to allow "the purchase from the small producers" of the areas of Leeds, Bradford and Manchester. On 24 November 1841 they wrote of themselves, "three years ago we established a firm in Hamburg specialising in manufactured goods in support of which purpose we received in addition to our own capital a considerable amount at ten years from Michaelson & Benedick."

German

7 records available

Michaelson & Benedick, 1826-1859

XI/38/179, 2 boxes

The series opens with a letter from M. Benedicks in his own hand commenting on his 35 years of business association with Mayer Amschel Rothschild and 20 year connection with Nathan. The early correspondence also comments on the firm B.A. Goldschmidt. This firm handled drafts, bills at sight and circular credit notes in Stockholm and provided details of rates of exchange, mostly on Amsterdam, Hamburg and London.

German

34 records available

Montefiore, [India and Australia], 1818-1867

XI/38/7, 1 box

The Montefiores were a family of Sephardi Jews who were European diplomats and bankers. The family originated from Morocco and Italy. Moses Vita-Haim Montefiore (1712-1789) emigrated from Livorno to London in the 1740s. The families of two of his sons, Joseph Elias Montefiore (1759-1804) and Eliezor Jacob Montefiore (1761-1837) were to have close business and personal ties with the Rothschild family.

Joseph Elias Montefiore married Rachel Mocatta (1762-1841), the daughter of Abraham Mocatta, a powerful bullion broker in London. Their son, Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, (1784–1885), became a financier, activist, and philanthropist. The Montefiore firm acted as stockbrokers for Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777-1836), and in 1824, Moses Montefiore and Nathan Mayer Rothschild established the Alliance Assurance Company in temporary offices in Moses Montefiore’s home in St Swithin’s Lane.  The sons of Eliezor Jacob Montefiore, Jacob 'Barrow' Montefore (1801-1895) and Joseph 'Barrow' Montefiore (1803-1893) acted as agents for the Rothschilds in Australia, although the relationship ended in 1855. 

This small series contains correspondence from various members of the Montefiore family, mostly from Australia, concerning Australian business. The earliest letters received are dated 1818. The series includes a file of letters from Montefiore, Kelsall Carmichael of Calcutta, (1834-1837). The series includes a file of letters from Montefiore, Furtado & Co. of Adelaide and Hobart Town (1832-1839).

The largest element are letters from 'J.B. Montefiore' of Melbourne covering the period 1840-1852.  In the early 1850s, Joseph 'Barrow' Montefiore and his brother Jacob 'Barrow' Montefiore compiled detailed reports of the discovery of gold in Ballarat and charted the development of the community following this event. In 1852, Jacob 'Barrow' Montefiore sent a Report on Trade in New South Wales, (the 'Victoria Report') to N M Rothschild & Sons reporting on opportunities in Victoria, Australia; the report can be found in XI/38/7/5. Two further files contain letters from Jacob Montefiore & Co., Melbourne and Geelong (1853-1854). 

[Note: there is evidence that the original order of the letters has been disturbed, and that some items may have been added from other series in the Archive].

English

8 records available

Morel & Son, 1810-1811;1814-1815

XI/38/180, 1 box

Morrell handled bills at sight, remittances and drafts, especially on Paris and shipping goods from Dunkirk where the firm was based. There are references to a meeting with Mr. & Mrs. Montefiore on their way to Paris in April 1814, comments on a meeting with Salomon Rothschild in 1814, reports on his movements and details of the shipping of bonnets, gloves, shoes, cloth and china cups.

English, German, French

4 records available

Morpurgo & Parente, 1837-1879

XI/79/0-3, 9 boxes

Early letters from this Trieste firm contain news of the sugar market with details of sales made, acknowledgements of receipt of shipments and the occasional protest about lost shipments, such as the one made by Noah Nason, ship master of Kennebunk. Some early letters also deal with the delivery of rails and other materials ordered on behalf of the Viennese Rothschilds. Included are some reports on political and social events where these affect the markets as well as a few letters of recommendation for new clients, but the majority of the correspondence deals with routine business. (Note: A family tree of the Morpurgo fanily will be found in 000/1680).

German, French, Italian, English

43 records available

Musgrove Edgar & Co., 1868-1874

XI/38/181, 1 box

Letters from these Liverpool cotton brokers give details of the cotton market. Frequently enclosed is the weekly circular of the Liverpool Cotton Brokers Association. The correspondence thins dramatically in 1873 and 1874, where approximately 50 letters span both years.

English

7 records available

Mutzenbecher, F. M., 1818-1820

XI/38/182, 1 box

Writing from Hamburg, Mutzenbecher supplied regular reports on money exchanges, handled specie, remitted bills for NMR on London and maintained an account for NMR. Details include the rates of exchange and stocks.

English

3 records available

Myers, Jacques & Co., 1848-1855

XI/38/183-86, 8 boxes

From Liverpool, Myers undertook routine business in bills of exchange, received commodities from the New World and sold bales of cotton, tobacco and corn on NMR's account, supplying NMR with details of the market for these goods. They also dealt with shipments of specie, especially Mexican dollars. There are occasional accounts enclosed with the letters, as well as comments on weather conditions affecting the arrival of shipped goods.

English

8 records available

Oppenheim Family, 1807-1905

XI/81/0-3, 10 boxes

These are principally letters of recommendation, introduction and credit for private individuals, drafts, remittances and bills of lading for shipments of commodities, especially textiles but also cigars. There is a consecutive run of letters between 1870 and 1905, although there are fewer letters for the earlier years. The series includes non-consecutive letters from Oppenheim & Enke and Oppenheim & Warshauer, B. L. Fould and Fould Oppenheim, covering the period 1807 to 1834.

English, German, French, Yiddish

201 records available

Oppenheim, Rudolph & Son, 1877-1880

XI/38/188, 2 boxes

Writing from Berlin, this firm handles drafts, protests, and foreign exchange dealing for NMR.

German

4 records available

Osy, J., 1810;1814-1815

XI/38/193, 1 box

From Brussels and Hamburg. Handling bills of exchange, regular lists of prices re short term bills on Amsterdam, London, Paris, Oporto and Leghorn. Reports on relative level of demand, reports on impact of Vienna Congress on market, comments on state of market and factors influencing the business.

English, German

3 records available

Osy, J. J. R., 1814-1826;1829-1849

XI/38/194-98, 9 boxes

This firm was based in Antwerp, providing regular reports on trading in public securities, regular lists of prices of public securities, state loans, maintaining an NMR account and dealing in bills of exchange. The correspondence gives details about the progress of state loans, such as those to Belgium, Denmark and Brazil and provides regular comments and quotations on the markets. [includes Osy, J.J.R., Osy & Co., & Baron J.J.R. Osy]

English

41 records available

Osy, Jean & Son, 1810;1814-1842

XI/38/189-92, 4 boxes

This Rotterdam firm handles bills at sight, bills of exchange, drafts, supplying almost daily lists of Exchange prices and public securities covering most loans to European and South American governments.

English

30 records available

Palmer, Aaron H. & others, 1837-1840

XI/38/199, 1 box

A small series of letters from the Office of American and Foreign Agency, New York under the directorship of 'Aaron H. Palmer' which provided NMR mainly with accounts of affairs relating to banking and commerce in the US. In the letters there are detailed accounts of events concerning laws and governmental activity affecting banking, including orders by the Treasury and their subsequent reception by Congress, petitions to the Senate for acts to establish incorporate new banks, etc. The Agency also supplied information on negotiations of loans and reports on the raising of loans and bond issues within the US, and on many aspects relating to US State Banks and their activities. Other news items provided such diverse pieces of information as tales of piracy, including the infestation of pirates around the archipelago of Borneo and Java, the arrival of officers from England, the arbitrage of the King of Prussia in the potential difficulties between Mexico and the US in 1838, the current state of the Treasury, affairs concerning the cotton crop and rail roads.

English

4 records available

Paravey & Co., 1823;1825-1827

XI/38/200, 1 box

Letters from a company based in Paris, whose services to NMR included maintaining the account with them, handling drafts and remittances, providing NMR with abstracts of their account. The letters contain nothing beyond routine business.

French

4 records available

Parish, Agie & Co., 1819-1822

XI/38/201, 1 box

Letters from the correspondent bank of David Parish, an Anglo-German Hamburg banker, writing from Hamburg and Antwerp offering NMR services such as the acceptance and discharge of bills, handling protests and obtaining and sending bullion and specie to NMR and to various others. They supply NMR with regular stock market quotations on Amsterdam and provide detailed accounts of the difficulty of shipping due to poor weather condition, and include comments on movements in rates of exchange, statements of accounts giving shared profits.

French, English

4 records available

Passavant & Co., 1836-1848

XI/38/202, 2 boxes

Passavant writes from Manchester with details of the movements on Rothschilds’ account with them.

English

13 records available

Pescio & Co., 1829-1847

XI/38/203, 2 boxes

Letters written from Genoa begin just as the firm is taken over by Stephen Pescio on the death of his father-in-law, Giovanni Bandeuf. The correspondence is concerned with bill business.

French

19 records available

Pfeiffer Bros., 1830-1847

XI/38/204, 1 box

Routine correspondence regarding bills of exchange written from Cassel.

German

18 records available

Phillips, R. & J., 1821-1837

XI/38/205, 2 boxes

Agents for NMR in Philadelphia, handling accounts on US loans, shipping specie and providing market information. In the final letter, 31 March, 1937, Phillips announce that they are "cut down at [their] most prosperous moment" as they are forced to suspend payments.

English

17 records available

Poggi, G. M., 1830-1841

XI/38/206, 1 box

Based in Milan, the firm handled bills of exchange and forwarded details of the exchanges.

French

12 records available

Prime, Ward & King, 1837-1847

XI/38/208, 1 box

This firm handled remittances etc. for NMR in New York.

English

11 records available

Richtenberger, L., 1827;1835-1853

XI/38/209-12, 8 boxes

This correspondence series begins in 1827 with business letters from Amsterdam. Lazare Richtenberger was the first agent of the Rothschilds in Brussels, established in the post by James de Rothschild. Some years later, Samuel Lambert became agent in Antwerp and took over the agency of Richtenberger, his father-in-law, running the two branches concurrently.

German

21 records available

Roux de Fraissenet & Cie., Marseilles, 1836-1883

XI/88/0-4, 11 boxes

This series begins in 1836 although letters to the company (called Fraissenet et Roux in the early years) can be found in the Letter Copy Books (XI/148) as early as 1834. The company received shipments from Java, Spain, and Mauritius.

French

48 records available

Samuel, Phillips & Co., 1815-1816;1819-1833;1841-1843

XI/38/215, 2 boxes

Letters in the ‘Sundry’ correspondence series suggest that Rothschild was in contact with this firm from 1812. Early letters in the XI/38 series show that the company was called Samuel & Phillips, but that after 1819 was Samuel, Phillips & Co. The company was based in Rio de Janeiro (with an office in London - letters from this to be found in the Sundry series). They accepted bills and drew on NMR, and much of the correspondence is concerned with this routine business; letters may include schedules of bills drawn, and there are also some pages of accounts of Samuel Phillips & Co. in account with NMR. In addition the company collected specie and bullion; some invoices are included, and there are some lists of prices of local specie, bullion and commodities, such as coffee, tallow, cotton, rum, sugar and hides. Letters cover details concerning the insurance of consignments. The company supplied NMR with information on bullion, financial and commodity markets, especially coffee and sugar. They also acted as a source of information concerning events in Brazil and Portugal, including changes in government, and the attitude of Portugal to Brazil as a colony.

English

20 records available

Sandeman, George, 1835-1846

XI/38/214, 1 box

An agent in Oporto, coincidentally with a London office in St Swithin's Lane, produced a series of routine correspondence based on bills of exchange.

English

12 records available

Schaafhausen, A. & Co., 1830-1848

XI/38/216, 2 boxes

Routine correspondence from Cologne, relating to the handling of bills. The firm was a great competitor of Sal. Oppenheim jr. & Cie., and the latter firm tried to win the business of NMR from Schaaffhausen with particular vigour after the marriage of Charlotte Beyfus (a granddaughter of Mayer Amschel Rothschild) to Abraham Oppenheim in 1834.

German

19 records available

Scharfenberg, Carl, 1845-1854

XI/38/217, 2 boxes

The correspondence to 1855 is from Carl Scharfenberg alone, the former clerk in the Paris House and Rothschild agent in Havana. From 1855 the letters are from Scharfenberg, Tolmé & Co. [XI/38/218-19]. The majority of the letters are written in German, though there are clusters of English letters, the reason for this being unclear. There are on average two to four letters per month.

Scharfenberg describes in great detail the Cuban sugar business, including forecasts for harvests, the production process, the shipping and the buying of sugar by his firm and competitors. He also covers, in less detail, the tobacco business.

Cuba was a staging post for Mexican silver sent to Europe and Spanish quicksilver sent to Mexico, and these and other business deals are discussed.

Scharfenberg covers political developments only in passing, chiefly speculating on American-Spanish negotiations over Cuba. From 1855 the correspondence becomes very standardised, mostly covering individual financial transactions, and there is less information about the sugar market.

He was popular with the Rothschild family, prompting reports from Alphonse de Rothschild that he, "has done well, more conscientiously and with more concern for business than has been done in New York." (14 January 1849). Tolmé’s own letters are to be found in the Sundry series.

German, English

10 records available

Scharfenberg, Tolmé & Co., 1855-1873

XI/38/218-19, 4 boxes

The correspondence to 1855 is from Carl Scharfenberg alone [XI/38/217], the former clerk in the Paris House and Rothschild agent in Havana. From 1855 the letters are from Scharfenberg, Tolmé & Co. The majority of the letters are written in German, though there are clusters of English letters, the reason for this being unclear. There are on average two to four letters per month.

Scharfenberg describes in great detail the Cuban sugar business, including forecasts for harvests, the production process, the shipping and the buying of sugar by his firm and competitors. He also covers, in less detail, the tobacco business.

Cuba was a staging post for Mexican silver sent to Europe and Spanish quicksilver sent to Mexico, and these and other business deals are discussed.

Scharfenberg covers political developments only in passing, chiefly speculating on American-Spanish negotiations over Cuba. From 1855 the correspondence becomes very standardised, mostly covering individual financial transactions, and there is less information about the sugar market.

He was popular with the Rothschild family, prompting reports from Alphonse de Rothschild that he, "has done well, more conscientiously and with more concern for business than has been done in New York." (14 January 1849). Tolmé’s own letters are to be found in the Sundry series.

German, English

19 records available

Scheuer, A., 1832-1845

XI/38/220, 1 box

Some of the correspondence in this series, written from Dusseldorf, relates to railway company issues, especially from 1835.

German

14 records available

Schoene, Kilburn & Co., India, 1859-1874

XI/38/221, 2 boxes

Correspondence with Schoene, Kilburn & Co. in India. A variety of market reports from India from Schoene, Kilburn & Co. willl be found in the II/54 series, Sundry Correspondence Letters Received, Miscellaneous.

16 records available

Schultze, J. & Wolde, 1878-1890

XI/38/222-223, 4 boxes

This correspondence relates largely to the management of NMR’s account with the firm, based in Bremen, and includes extracts from these accounts.

German

13 records available

Schwann, F., 1845-1849

XI/38/224, 1 box

Routine business correspondence relating to handling of bills. Schwann was based in Huddersfield and described by Bank of England Manchester officials as the "Rothschild of Huddersfield."

English

5 records available

Seehandlung Society, 1817-1879

XI/38/225-31, 13 boxes

Correspondence between the "General-Direction" at the Seehandlung Society in Berlin and N M Rothschild in London between 1817 and 1879. Correspondence from Stettin relates to letters received between 1825 and 1833.

German

72 records available

Ships Letters, 1843-1847

XI/38/232, 1 file

5 records available

Sichel, B. & S., 1807-1819

XI/38/232A, 1 box

A small bundle of letters in Judendeutsch from B. & S. Sichel, including one from "Betty" Sichel, née Rothschild, thanking her brother Nathan for the splendid hat he sent her.

Judendeutsch

13 records available

Sichel, J. B., 1837-1838

XI/108/0-1, 1 box

The correspondence is entirely in Judendeutsch, and has little within beyond routine business communication.

Judendeutsch

2 records available

Sichel, S. B., 1827-1853

XI/38/233-41, 17 boxes

The firm, with bases in Lisbon and Amsterdam, became Sichel Brothers from January 1838.

German, English, Judendeutsch

30 records available

Sichel & Hildesheimer, 1802-1814

XI/38/241A, 1 file

A handful of letters in Judendeutsch from the newly formed firm. In the earliest letter, Nathan is asked to send them textiles at good prices with which they can attract good custom.

Judendeutsch

13 records available

Simon, E., 1835-1850

XI/38/242, 2 boxes

A routine correspondence from a Hanover-based firm.

English

16 records available

Standaert, F., 1828-1845

XI/38/246-48, 5 boxes

Five boxes of correspondence from Brussels and Antwerp. Standaert wrote every few days although there are fewer per year in the 1840s. The letters show the company handling bills, buying and selling shares on NMR's behalf. In particular Standaert was authorised to purchase Belgian loan obligations for NMR. There are details on the stock exchange, as well as some items of news that might affect the stock exchange.

French

17 records available

Stieglitz & Co., 1825;1830;1832;1833-1850

XI/38/249, 1 box

This correspondence is a routine business correspondence confirming transactions with letters of credit, drafts etc., handled in St Petersburg.

German, English

22 records available

Terwangne, F. & vande Wiel, 1829-1837

XI/38/250-50A, 2 boxes

This firm is a continuation of P.J. vande Wiel & Co. Terwangne’s correspondence from Antwerp. The correspondence encloses printed exchanges and confirms transactions between the two firms.

German

9 records available

Thomson & Co., 1855-1880

XI/38/251-60, 18 boxes

A long series of daily letters from a Liverpool firm which handles bills for acceptance on behalf of NMR. The correspondence also deals with sales of cotton and copper on behalf of NMR and arranges shipments of these commodities. The letters include comment on the state of the cotton market in particular. The correspondence is continued in the Sundry series.

English

28 records available

Valentin, A. S., 1876-1883

XI/38/261-265, 8 boxes

Letters in from the firm in Amsterdam concerning the acceptance of bills on Holland that are credited to NMR's general account. Valentin reports on the creditworthiness of various firms and provides details on the exchange. There is very little recorded beyond the routine business information. The letters from Albert Gansl follow on from this series.

German, English

9 records available

Veit Bros., 1829-1842

XI/38/267-268, 1 file

Routine correspondence from Berlin commenting on the value of the funds and handling bills on behalf of NMR

German

14 records available

Warburg, Elias, 1838-1845

XI/38/269, 1 box

The earliest letter is dated 2 January 1838, in which Elias Warburg announces that he has left the firm M.M. Warburg and has established his own firm in Hamburg. He hopes to do business with NMR on the same terms as before.

German

8 records available

Warburg, M. M., 1815-1935

XI/90/0-37; XI/90/38-47 (000/902), 110 boxes

The correspondence, beginning in 1815, is rather thin in the early years: only a couple of letters from each of the years 1815, 1816, 1820 and 1827 to 1830 are present, but the numbers gradually increase from that date. No letters at all survive for the years 1861 to 1864 inclusive. The volume increases substantially after 1865, perhaps because of the death of Carl Heine of S. Heine, Rothschilds' main contact in Hamburg, an event that Warburgs record as the end of the first private bank in the city.

The correspondence is basically commercial, and usually encloses an extract from Rothschilds' account with the firm. In one early letter (27 December 1816) Warburgs regret that they cannot send an abstract as requested since they were unable to enter the firm's wartime transactions into their ledger. Later Warburgs make use of telegrams to issue requests for purchases of stock and other transactions on their behalf and these are enclosed in the series.

Outside events are reflected here too. In 1870 Warburgs are jubilant about the "splendid" victories of the Prussian forces which have caused great excitement on the Exchange (8 August) although by 13 December they are reporting that the Exchange is upset by the stubborn resistance of the French.

The closeness of the two firms is shown in a letter of thanks for a portrait of 1st Lord Rothschild, presented to the firm in January 1898, their centenary year. Moritz Warburg expresses his gratitude to Lord Rothschild for having trained his son, Max, during an apprenticeship at New Court earlier in the decade. One letter only exists for the year 1918, a letter of condolence on the death of Alfred de Rothschild.

German

159 records available

Weisweiller & Bauer, Weisweiller, W. D., 1837-1879

XI/110/0-10, 9 boxes

The private correspondence of Daniel Weisweiller, the Rothschild agent in Madrid is actually contained in two series, XI/109 and XI/110. Virtually all the letters are in German, with occasional use of Hebrew characters for names. Most have been written from Madrid, but there are some from other European cities including Bayonne. On the whole the letters are addressed to de Rothschild Frères in Paris, but one or two are written to NMR, to Baron James and to Lionel. Three different hands appear but two dominate the correspondence. Unfortunately, the general legibility of the correspondence is bad and sometimes impenetrable.

Weisweiller wrote on a very regular basis, at least once a week, and sometimes almost daily. The series has some gaps, such as November 1840 and February to April 1842. In 1838 numerous letters are written by Scharfenberg; these too are addressed to the house in Paris and in London and contain similar information to those of Weisweiller who continued to write during the year.

Many of the letters are very detailed and contain a lot of business information. In 1837 to 1839 the business of the Almadén quicksilver mines predominates. Business intelligence relates to the Madrid stock exchange and to various deals the company undertook. In the 1840s especially, there are frequent references to "Manila business", "Havana business" and "Mexico business".

With regard to political information, the wars of the Spanish succession feature most frequently, with news of troop movements and gains and losses being reported to the Paris house. Weisweiller obtained his information from contacts with army officers and other individuals close to the Court and the Parliament, whose business he also monitored closely. He gave ready advice on the appropriate reactions to political developments.

Most files contain a few letters addressed to Weisweiller, which he copied and forwarded. These usually serve to underline a point made by Weisweiller himself. Some of these letters are in Spanish from various people, often in South America, and a few are in French, some of which have been translated into German.

(Note: a file of photocopies, transcripts and photographs relating to the Weisweiller family, including a carte de visite of Daniel Weisweiller (1814-1892) dated 1865 will be found in 000/642).

German, French, Spanish, Judendeutsch

11 records available

Weisweiller & Bauer continued as Bauer, G., 1881-1892; 1893-1917

XI/92/0-5; XI/59/0-9, 20 boxes; 19 boxes

This series of private letters is full of political and social comment, providing a vivid description of life in Spain during the period. All of Rothschilds' business interests in Spain and Spanish colonies - railways, quicksilver, government bonds and tobacco - are discussed and analysed, and prospects for new business ventures are suggested and described. Early reports of the formation of a British naval construction company, with yards in Bilbao, are discussed in 1888; in 1885 the behaviour of the population of Málaga (making false claims on emergency funds in aid of earthquake victims in Granada) provokes withering comment. The correspondences includes lots of personal news, about the Spanish agents themselves and about the Rothschild family and their other associates. The firm changed name in 1893.

The series is divided between two series, XI/92 and XI/59. See also XI/91 and XI/58 (000/869).

French, German

45 records available

Weisweiller, W. D. then Weisweiller & Bauer then Bauer, G., 1822-1933

XI/91/0-16; XI/58/0-20 (000/869), 61 boxes

The House or general correspondence of the Weisweiller & Bauer agency is contained across two series. The firm begun by Daniel Weisweiller began to trade as Weisweiller & Bauer in 1863, and then as G. Bauer from 1894.

French, German

116 records available

Wendt & Co., 1899-1900

XI/93/0A-0B, 2 boxes

The letters in this series, which continues in 'Sundry W', confirm payment by the London firm under various insurance policies.

English

3 records available

Wertheimstein, 1827-1829

XI/38/270, 1 box

Routine business letters from Amsterdam.

German

3 records available

Wiel, P.J. vande & Co., 1827-1828

XI/38/266, 1 box

See F. Terwangne & vande Wiel.

2 records available

Worms family, 1805-1842

XI/38/271, 1 packet

A small package of letters in Judendeutsch from various members of the Worms family in Frankfurt, Offenbach, Manchester and Manila, the latter dated 11 January 1842 from Moritz who reports on business opportunities and undertakes to forward plants, seeds and two bloodhounds.

Judendeutsch

38 records available