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Closure of the Naples house, 1863

The last Rothschild House established in Europe was the first one to close. Carl's increasing identification with a reactionary monarchy and his own growing disenchantment with banking after the death of Adelheid in 1853, meant that the new forces of liberalism – particularly in the person of Cavour – effectively bypassed him.  He died in 1855, leaving the business in the hands of his son Adolphe (1823-1900), whose two surviving brothers assumed responsibility of the Frankfurt office on the death of their childless uncle in the same year.

Adolphe was soon faced with major problems.  In 1860 a revolt, led by Garibaldi and financed by Cavour, drove King Francis II into a five-month resistance.  He turned to Adolphe for finance, offering the entire royal treasure as security.  With his campaign ending in defeat, he went into exile, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies came to an end, and the royal collection of gold and silver objets d’art, jewels and regalia passed to Adolphe to form the core of his own collections.

The unification of the kingdoms of Italy in 1860 saw the diminution of influence of Naples, and the maintenance of a Rothschild House in the city was no longer viable. Adolphe, rather than entering into business with the new regime, chose to leave Naples and opted to end his involvement in the Rothschild banking partnership. At a family meeting in Paris in September 1863, Adolphe was bought out of the partnership by his cousins, and the affairs of the Naples house were terminated, and the accounts settled. C M de Rothschild & Figli ceased to trade in 1863.

The Villa was sold to the Duke of Monteleone, Don Diego Pignatelli Cortes. Adolphe retired to Lake Geneva where he employed Joseph Paxton to build his château of Pregny.  He died, childless, in 1900 and in 1907, his widow, Julie (1830-1907) bequeathed the entire estate and collections to her second cousin, Maurice (1881-1957), son of Edmond (1845-1934) and grandson of Baron James of Paris.